Influence of climate on corn (Zea mays) yield in the center of Buenos Aires province, Argentina

María Miranda del Fresno, Adriana Confalone

Abstract


The crop yield is the result of the interactions of the continuum soil-plant-atmosphere in the time. The understanding of these interactions and the description of climate effects on the yield requires a constant effort to reduce the negative effects of the climatic changes. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of agroclimatic variables on the increase of corn (Zea mays) yield for the last decades in Azul municipality, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The yield series of Ministerio de Agricultura was compared, where a tendency to the increase was observed, with a yield series corrected through a fit equation, to which the technology effect and two yield series simulated in the program Decision Support System for Agrotechnology: "potential yield" and dry "potential yield" for an agricultural soil were take off. These results were linked with agroclimatic variables of maximum and minimum temperature, rainfalls and global radiations. It could verified that when the technology effects disappear, decrease yield (30 %). The increase of potential yield (6.20 %) is associated with the increase of global radiation and temperature. The decrease of rainfalls in the last decade (30 %) cause the fall of the corrected yield series (11 %) and the dry potential yield series (25 %). It is concluded that the climate has a negative effect on yield, but the technology hide it. The decrease of rainfalls in the spring-summer months is the most influence element in the yield.

Key words: crop, agroclimatic variables, technology, Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer.


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